Andrew Bennett


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Hydrologic Model Sensitivity to Temporal Aggregation of Meteorological Forcing Data: A Case Study for the Contiguous United States
Ashley E. Van Beusekom, Lauren Hay, Andrew Bennett, Young-Don Choi, Martyn P. Clark, J. L. Goodall, Zhiyu Li, Iman Maghami, Bart Nijssen, Andrew W. Wood
Journal of Hydrometeorology, Volume 23, Issue 2

Abstract Surface meteorological analyses are an essential input (termed “forcing”) for hydrologic modeling. This study investigated the sensitivity of different hydrologic model configurations to temporal variations of seven forcing variables (precipitation rate, air temperature, longwave radiation, specific humidity, shortwave radiation, wind speed, and air pressure). Specifically, the effects of temporally aggregating hourly forcings to hourly daily average forcings were examined. The analysis was based on 14 hydrological outputs from the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) model for the 671 Catchment Attributes and Meteorology for Large-Sample Studies (CAMELS) basins across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Results demonstrated that the hydrologic model sensitivity to temporally aggregating the forcing inputs varies across model output variables and model locations. We used Latin hypercube sampling to sample model parameters from eight combinations of three influential model physics choices (three model decisions with two options for each decision, i.e., eight model configurations). Results showed that the choice of model physics can change the relative influence of forcing on model outputs and the forcing importance may not be dependent on the parameter space. This allows for model output sensitivity to forcing aggregation to be tested prior to parameter calibration. More generally, this work provides a comprehensive analysis of the dependence of modeled outcomes on input forcing behavior, providing insight into the regional variability of forcing variable dominance on modeled outputs across CONUS.

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Community Workflows to Advance Reproducibility in Hydrologic Modeling: Separating Model‐Agnostic and Model‐Specific Configuration Steps in Applications of Large‐Domain Hydrologic Models
Wouter Knoben, Martyn P. Clark, Jerad D. Bales, Andrew Bennett, Shervan Gharari, Christopher B. Marsh, Bart Nijssen, Alain Pietroniro, Raymond J. Spiteri, Guoqiang Tang, David G. Tarboton, A. W. Wood
Water Resources Research, Volume 58, Issue 11

Despite the proliferation of computer-based research on hydrology and water resources, such research is typically poorly reproducible. Published studies have low reproducibility due to incomplete availability of data and computer code, and a lack of documentation of workflow processes. This leads to a lack of transparency and efficiency because existing code can neither be quality controlled nor reused. Given the commonalities between existing process-based hydrologic models in terms of their required input data and preprocessing steps, open sharing of code can lead to large efficiency gains for the modeling community. Here, we present a model configuration workflow that provides full reproducibility of the resulting model instantiations in a way that separates the model-agnostic preprocessing of specific data sets from the model-specific requirements that models impose on their input files. We use this workflow to create large-domain (global and continental) and local configurations of the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) hydrologic model connected to the mizuRoute routing model. These examples show how a relatively complex model setup over a large domain can be organized in a reproducible and structured way that has the potential to accelerate advances in hydrologic modeling for the community as a whole. We provide a tentative blueprint of how community modeling initiatives can be built on top of workflows such as this. We term our workflow the “Community Workflows to Advance Reproducibility in Hydrologic Modeling” (CWARHM; pronounced “swarm”).


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The numerical implementation of land models: Problem formulation and laugh tests
Martyn P. Clark, Reza Zolfaghari, Kevin R. Green, S. J. Trim, Wouter Knoben, Andrew Bennett, Bart Nijssen, A. M. Ireson, Raymond J. Spiteri
Journal of Hydrometeorology

Abstract The intent of this paper is to encourage improved numerical implementation of land models. Our contributions in this paper are two-fold. First, we present a unified framework to formulate and implement land model equations. We separate the representation of physical processes from their numerical solution, enabling the use of established robust numerical methods to solve the model equations. Second, we introduce a set of synthetic test cases (the laugh tests) to evaluate the numerical implementation of land models. The test cases include storage and transmission of water in soils, lateral sub-surface flow, coupled hydrological and thermodynamic processes in snow, and cryosuction processes in soil. We consider synthetic test cases as “laugh tests” for land models because they provide the most rudimentary test of model capabilities. The laugh tests presented in this paper are all solved with the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives model (SUMMA) implemented using the SUite of Nonlinear and DIfferential/Algebraic equation Solvers (SUNDIALS). The numerical simulations from SUMMA/SUNDIALS are compared against (1) solutions to the synthetic test cases from other models documented in the peer-reviewed literature; (2) analytical solutions; and (3) observations made in laboratory experiments. In all cases, the numerical simulations are similar to the benchmarks, building confidence in the numerical model implementation. We posit that some land models may have difficulty in solving these benchmark problems. Dedicating more effort to solving synthetic test cases is critical in order to build confidence in the numerical implementation of land models.

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Toward open and reproducible environmental modeling by integrating online data repositories, computational environments, and model Application Programming Interfaces
Young-Don Choi, Jonathan L. Goodall, Jeffrey M. Sadler, Anthony M. Castronova, Andrew Bennett, Zhiyu Li, Bart Nijssen, Shaowen Wang, Martyn P. Clark, Daniel P. Ames, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Yi Hong, C. Bandaragoda, M. Seul, Richard Hooper, David G. Tarboton
Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 135

Cyberinfrastructure needs to be advanced to enable open and reproducible environmental modeling research. Recent efforts toward this goal have focused on advancing online repositories for data and model sharing, online computational environments along with containerization technology and notebooks for capturing reproducible computational studies, and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for simulation models to foster intuitive programmatic control. The objective of this research is to show how these efforts can be integrated to support reproducible environmental modeling. We present first the high-level concept and general approach for integrating these three components. We then present one possible implementation that integrates HydroShare (an online repository), CUAHSI JupyterHub and CyberGIS-Jupyter for Water (computational environments), and pySUMMA (a model API) to support open and reproducible hydrologic modeling. We apply the example implementation for a hydrologic modeling use case to demonstrate how the approach can advance reproducible environmental modeling through the seamless integration of cyberinfrastructure services. • New approaches are needed to support open and reproducible environmental modeling. • Efforts should focus on integrating existing cyberinfrastructure to build new systems. • Our focus is on integrating repositories, computational environments, and model APIs. • An example implementation is shown using HydroShare, JupyterHub, and pySUMMA. • We demonstrate how the approach fosters reproducibility using a modeling case study.


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Quantifying Process Connectivity With Transfer Entropy in Hydrologic Models
Andrew Bennett, Bart Nijssen, Gengxin Ou, Martyn P. Clark, Grey Nearing
Water Resources Research, Volume 55, Issue 6

Quantifying the behavior and performance of hydrologic models is an important aspect of understanding the underlying hydrologic systems. We argue that classical error measures do not offer a complete picture for building this understanding. This study demonstrates how the information theoretic measure known as transfer entropy can be used to quantify the active transfer of information between hydrologic processes at various timescales and facilitate further understanding of the behavior of these systems. To build a better understanding of the differences in dynamics, we compare model instances of the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) across a variety of hydrologic regimes in the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Our results show differences in the runoff of the SUMMA instance compared to the other two models in several of our study locations. In the Snake River region, SUMMA runoff was primarily snowmelt driven, while VIC and PRMS runoff was primarily influenced by precipitation and evapotranspiration. In the Olympic mountains, evapotranspiration interacted with the other water balance variables much differently in PRMS than in VIC and SUMMA. In the Willamette River, all three models had similar process networks at the daily time scale but showed differences in information transfer at the monthly timescale. Additionally, we find that all three models have similar connectivity between evapotranspiration and soil moisture. Analyzing information transfers to runoff at daily and monthly time steps shows how processes can operate on different timescales. By comparing information transfer with correlations, we show how transfer entropy provides a complementary picture of model behavior.