Charlotte Love


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Status and prospects for drought forecasting: opportunities in artificial intelligence and hybrid physical–statistical forecasting
Amir AghaKouchak, Baoxiang Pan, Omid Mazdiyasni, Mojtaba Sadegh, Shakil Jiwa, Wenkai Zhang, Charlotte Love, Shahrbanou Madadgar, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Steven J. Davis, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Volume 380, Issue 2238

Despite major improvements in weather and climate modelling and substantial increases in remotely sensed observations, drought prediction remains a major challenge. After a review of the existing methods, we discuss major research gaps and opportunities to improve drought prediction. We argue that current approaches are top-down, assuming that the process(es) and/or driver(s) are known—i.e. starting with a model and then imposing it on the observed events (reality). With the help of an experiment, we show that there are opportunities to develop bottom-up drought prediction models—i.e. starting from the reality (here, observed events) and searching for model(s) and driver(s) that work. Recent advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning provide significant opportunities for developing bottom-up drought forecasting models. Regardless of the type of drought forecasting model (e.g. machine learning, dynamical simulations, analogue based), we need to shift our attention to robustness of theories and outputs rather than event-based verification. A shift in our focus towards quantifying the stability of uncertainty in drought prediction models, rather than the goodness of fit or reproducing the past, could be the first step towards this goal. Finally, we highlight the advantages of hybrid dynamical and statistical models for improving current drought prediction models. This article is part of the Royal Society Science+ meeting issue ‘Drought risk in the Anthropocene’.


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Climate Extremes and Compound Hazards in a Warming World
Amir AghaKouchak, Felicia Chiang, Laurie S. Huning, Charlotte Love, Iman Mallakpour, Omid Mazdiyasni, Hamed Moftakhari, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Elisa Ragno, Mojtaba Sadegh
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 1

Climate extremes threaten human health, economic stability, and the well-being of natural and built environments (e.g., 2003 European heat wave). As the world continues to warm, climate hazards are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. The impacts of extreme events will also be more severe due to the increased exposure (growing population and development) and vulnerability (aging infrastructure) of human settlements. Climate models attribute part of the projected increases in the intensity and frequency of natural disasters to anthropogenic emissions and changes in land use and land cover. Here, we review the impacts, historical and projected changes,and theoretical research gaps of key extreme events (heat waves, droughts, wildfires, precipitation, and flooding). We also highlight the need to improve our understanding of the dependence between individual and interrelated climate extremes because anthropogenic-induced warming increases the risk of not only individual climate extremes but also compound (co-occurring) and cascading hazards. ▪ Climate hazards are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in a warming world. ▪ Anthropogenic-induced warming increases the risk of compound and cascading hazards. ▪ We need to improve our understanding of causes and drivers of compound and cascading hazards.