Grant E. Gunn


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Investigating the Effect of Lake Ice Properties on Multifrequency Backscatter Using the Snow Microwave Radiative Transfer Model
Justin Murfitt, Claude R. Duguay, Ghislain Picard, Grant E. Gunn
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Volume 60

Recent investigations using polarimetric decomposition and numerical models have helped to improve understanding of how radar signals interact with lake ice. However, further research is needed on how radar signals are impacted by varying lake ice properties. Radiative transfer models provide one method of improving this understanding. These are the first published experiments using the Snow Microwave Radiative Transfer (SMRT) model to investigate the response of different imaging SAR frequencies (L, C, and X-band) at HH and VV polarizations using various incidence angles (20°, 30°, and 40°) to changes in ice thickness, porosity, bubble radius, and ice-water interface roughness. This is also the first use of SMRT in combination with a thermodynamic lake ice model. Experiments were for a lake with tubular bubbles and one without tubular bubbles under difference scenarios. Analysis of the backscatter response to different properties indicate that increasing ice thickness and layer porosity have little impact on backscatter from lake ice. X-band backscatter shows increased response to surface ice layer bubble radius; however, this was limited for other frequencies except at shallower incidence angles (40°). All three frequencies display the largest response to increasing RMS height at the ice-water interface, which supports surface scattering at the ice-water interface as being the dominant scattering mechanism. These results demonstrate that SMRT is a valuable tool for understanding the response of SAR data to changes in freshwater lake ice properties and could be used in the development of inversion models.

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Polarimetric decomposition of microwave-band freshwater ice SAR data: Review, analysis, and future directions
Jake E. Ferguson, Grant E. Gunn
Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 280

The availability and quality of quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets has increased substantially since the early 2000s, allowing for polarimetrically complete investigations of freshwater ice. These investigations have lead to improved ice classification methods, new understanding of microwave-ice scattering processes, and the potential for new methods to extract ice observables. Such analyses are predicated on the decomposition of the target’s polarimetric properties along mathematical or physical lines. This paper comprehensively reviews the underlying theory and contemporary application of radar polarimetric decomposition as it applies to freshwater ice systems. Modelling and investigation of lake ice, river ice, and glacial systems are discussed. We conclude with recommendations for further research, discussing the value of further development of freshwater-ice models, their use in characterization of the scattering process, and the potential for new methods to extract environmental observables.


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One size does not fit all: Toward regional conservation practice guidance to reduce phosphorus loss risk in the Lake Erie watershed
Merrin L. Macrae, Helen P. Jarvie, Roy Brouwer, Grant E. Gunn, Keith Reid, Pamela Joosse, Kevin W. King, Peter J. A. Kleinman, Doug Smith, Mark R. Williams, Martha Zwonitzer
Journal of Environmental Quality, Volume 50, Issue 3

Agricultural phosphorus (P) losses to surface water bodies remain a global eutrophication concern, despite the application of conservation practices on farm fields. Although it is generally agreed upon that the use of multiple conservation practices (“stacking”) will lead to greater improvements to water quality, this may not be cost effective to farmers, reducing the likelihood of adoption. At present, wholesale recommendations of conservation practices are given; however, the application of specific conservation practices in certain environments (e.g., no-till with surface application, cover crops) may not be effective and can even lead to unintended consequences. In this paper, we present the Lake Erie watershed as a case study. The Lake Erie watershed contains regions with unique physical geographies that include differences in climate, soil, topography, and land use, which have implications for both P transport from agricultural fields and the efficacy of conservation practices in mitigating P losses. We define major regions within the Lake Erie watershed where common strategies for conservation practice implementation are appropriate, and we propose a five-step plan for bringing regionally tailored, adaptive, and cost-conscious conservation practice into watershed planning. Although this paper is specific to the Lake Erie watershed, our framework can be transferred across broader geographic regions to provide guidance for watershed planning.


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Observing Scattering Mechanisms of Bubbled Freshwater Lake Ice Using Polarimetric RADARSAT-2 (C-Band) and UW-Scat (X- and Ku-Bands)
Grant E. Gunn, Claude R. Duguay, Donald K. Atwood, Joshua King, Peter Toose
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Volume 56, Issue 5

A winter time series of ground-based (X- and Ku-bands) scatterometer and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (C-band) fully polarimetric observations coincident with in situ snow and ice measurements are used to identify the dominant scattering mechanism in bubbled freshwater lake ice in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill, Manitoba. Scatterometer observations identify two physical sources of backscatter from the ice cover: the snow–ice and ice–water interfaces. Backscatter time series at all frequencies show increases from the ice–water interface prior to the inclusion of tubular bubbles in the ice column based on in situ observations, indicating scattering mechanisms independent of double-bounce scatter. The co-polarized phase difference of interactions at the ice–water interface from both scatterometer and SAR observations is centered at 0° during the time series, also indicating a scattering regime other than double bounce. A Yamaguchi three-component decomposition of the RADARSAT-2 C-band time series is presented, which suggests the dominant scattering mechanism to be single-bounce off the ice–water interface with appreciable surface roughness or preferentially oriented facets, regardless of the presence, absence, or density of tubular bubble inclusions. This paper builds on newly established evidence of single-bounce scattering mechanism for freshwater lake ice and is the first to present a winter time series of ground-based and spaceborne fully polarimetric active microwave observations with polarimetric decompositions for bubbled freshwater lake ice.