K. Andrea Scott


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Lake surface temperature retrieved from Landsat satellite series (1984 to 2021) for the North Slave Region
Gifty Attiah, Homa Kheyrollah Pour, K. Andrea Scott
Earth System Science Data, Volume 15, Issue 3

Abstract. Lake surface temperature (LST) is an important attribute that highlights regional weather and climate variability and trends. The spatial resolution and thermal sensors on Landsat platforms provide the capability of monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of lake surface temperature on small- to medium-sized lakes. In this study, a retrieval algorithm was applied to the thermal bands of Landsat archives to generate a LST dataset (North Slave LST dataset) for 535 lakes in the North Slave Region (NSR) of the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, for the period of 1984 to 2021. North Slave LST was retrieved from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS); however, most of the dataset was created from the thermal bands of Landsat 5 (43 %) due to its longevity (1984–2013). Cloud masks were applied to Landsat images to eliminate cloud cover. In addition, a 100 m inward buffer was applied to lakes to prevent pixel mixing with shorelines. To evaluate the algorithm applied, retrieved LST was compared with in situ data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST observations. A good agreement was observed between in situ observations and North Slave LST, with a mean bias of 0.12 ∘C and a root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 ∘C. The North Slave LST dataset contains more available data for warmer months (May to September; 57.3 %) compared to colder months (October to April). The average number of images per year for each lake across the NSR ranged from 20 to 45. The North Slave LST dataset, available at https://doi.org/10.5683/SP3/J4GMC2 (Attiah et al., 2022), will provide communities, scientists, and stakeholders with spatial and temporal changing temperature trends on lakes for the past 38 years.

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Gravity currents in the cabbeling regime
Andrew Grace, Marek Stastna, Kevin G. Lamb, K. Andrea Scott
Physical Review Fluids, Volume 8, Issue 1

Freshwater has been shown to have a maximum density at about four degrees Celsius, and this leads to a phenomenon known as cabbeling. Cabbeling occurs when masses of water on different sides of the temperature of maximum density mix and create a denser mass. What happens when intruding and ambient temperatures in a gravity current are on opposite sides of the temperature of maximum density? How does cabbeling affect the evolution characteristics of gravity currents, and what sort of long term behavior arises?


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Numerical simulations of the three-dimensionalization of a shear flow in radiatively forced cold water below the density maximum
Andrew Grace, Marek Stastna, Kevin G. Lamb, K. Andrea Scott
Physical Review Fluids, Volume 7, Issue 2

In cold water (temperatures between water's freezing point and the temperature of maximum density), near-surface heating (from the sun) generates dense water which in turn induces vertical currents. If there is a near-surface current, the resulting convective instabilities efficiently move momentum from the current to regions lower in the water column. Then, there is an induced momentum flux across the plume boundary leading to a complicated series of three-dimensional interactions resulting in turbulence. How might this process be affected by factors such as water clarity and current speed?

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Incorporating Aleatoric Uncertainties in Lake Ice Mapping Using RADARSAT–2 SAR Images and CNNs
Nastaran Saberi, K. Andrea Scott, Claude R. Duguay
Remote Sensing, Volume 14, Issue 3

With the increasing availability of SAR imagery in recent years, more research is being conducted using deep learning (DL) for the classification of ice and open water; however, ice and open water classification using conventional DL methods such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is not yet accurate enough to replace manual analysis for operational ice chart mapping. Understanding the uncertainties associated with CNN model predictions can help to quantify errors and, therefore, guide efforts on potential enhancements using more–advanced DL models and/or synergistic approaches. This paper evaluates an approach for estimating the aleatoric uncertainty [a measure used to identify the noise inherent in data] of CNN probabilities to map ice and open water with a custom loss function applied to RADARSAT–2 HH and HV observations. The images were acquired during the 2014 ice season of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, two of the five Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Operational image analysis charts from the Canadian Ice Service (CIS), which are based on visual interpretation of SAR imagery, are used to provide training and testing labels for the CNN model and to evaluate the accuracy of the model predictions. Bathymetry, as a variable that has an impact on the ice regime of lakes, was also incorporated during model training in supplementary experiments. Adding aleatoric loss and bathymetry information improved the accuracy of mapping water and ice. Results are evaluated quantitatively (accuracy metrics) and qualitatively (visual comparisons). Ice and open water scores were improved in some sections of the lakes by using aleatoric loss and including bathymetry. In Lake Erie, the ice score was improved by ∼2 on average in the shallow near–shore zone as a result of better mapping of dark ice (low backscatter) in the western basin. As for Lake Ontario, the open water score was improved by ∼6 on average in the deepest profundal off–shore zone.


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Retrieval of ice/water observations from synthetic aperture radar imagery for use in lake ice data assimilation
K. Andrea Scott, Linlin Xu, Homa Kheyrollah Pour
Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 46, Issue 6

High-resolution lake ice/water observations retrieved from satellite imagery through efficient, automated methods can provide critical information to lake ice forecasting systems. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is well-suited to this purpose due to its high spatial resolution (approximately 50 m). With recent increases in the volume of SAR data available, the development of automated retrieval methods for these data is a priority for operational centres. However, automated retrieval of ice/water data from SAR imagery is difficult, due to ambiguity in ice and open water signatures, both in terms of image tone and in terms of parameterized texture features extracted from these images. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can learn features from imagery in an automated manner, and have been found effective in previous studies on sea ice concentration estimation from SAR. In this study the use of CNNs to retrieve ice/water observations from dual-polarized SAR imagery of two of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, is investigated. For data assimilation, it is crucial that the retrieved observations are of high quality. To this end, quality control measures based on the uncertainty of the CNN output to eliminate incorrect retrievals are discussed and demonstrated. The quality control measures are found to be effective in both dual-polarized and single-polarized retrievals. The ability of the CNN to downscale the coarse resolution training labels is demonstrated qualitatively.