Oluwabunmi P. Femi-Oloye


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Understanding common population markers for SARS-CoV-2 RNA normalization in wastewater – A review
Femi Francis Oloye, Yuwei Xie, Jonathan K. Challis, Oluwabunmi P. Femi-Oloye, Markus Brinkmann, Kerry N. McPhedran, Paul D. Jones, Mark R. Servos, John P. Giesy
Chemosphere, Volume 333

Wastewater monitoring and epidemiology have seen renewed interest during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, there is an increasing need to normalize wastewater-derived viral loads in local populations. Chemical tracers, both exogenous and endogenous compounds, have proven to be more stable and reliable for normalization than biological indicators. However, differing instrumentation and extraction methods can make it difficult to compare results. This review examines current extraction and quantification methods for ten common population indicators: creatinine, coprostanol, nicotine, cotinine, sucralose, acesulfame, androstenedione 5-hydroindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), caffeine, and 1,7-dimethyluric acid. Some wastewater parameters such as ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and daily flowrate were also evaluated. The analytical methods included direct injection, dilute and shoot, liquid/liquid, and solid phase extraction (SPE). Creatine, acesulfame, nicotine, 5-HIAA and androstenedione have been analysed by direct injection into LC-MS; however, most authors prefer to include SPE steps to avoid matrix effects. Both LC-MS and GC-MS have been successfully used to quantify coprostanol in wastewater, and the other selected indicators have been quantified successfully with LC-MS. Acidification to stabilize the sample before freezing to maintain the integrity of samples has been reported to be beneficial. However, there are arguments both for and against working at acidic pHs. Wastewater parameters mentioned earlier are quick and easy to quantify, but the data does not always represent the human population effectively. A preference for population indicators originating solely from humans is apparent. This review summarises methods employed for chemical indicators in wastewater, provides a basis for choosing an appropriate extraction and analysis method, and highlights the utility of accurate chemical tracer data for wastewater-based epidemiology.

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Sorption behaviour and toxicity of an herbicide safener “cyprosulfamide”
Oluwabunmi P. Femi-Oloye, Femi Francis Oloye, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859

Cyprosulfamide is a herbicide safener that works against the injurious effects of herbicides such as isoxaflutole, dicamba, nicosulfuron, tembotrione, thiencarbazone-methyl. However, its sorption behaviour in soils and toxicity to aquatic organisms are yet to be thoroughly examined. This study determined the octanol-water partition coefficient, sorption properties, acute and chronic toxic effects, and potency of cyprosulfamide to the cladoceran water flea (Daphnia magna). The influence of soil properties such as organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, pH, and field capacity on adsorption and desorption properties were also examined. The Log Kow (0.55) of cyprosulfamide was less than that of some other safeners, such as benoxacor or furilazole, found in aquatic environments. The sorption of cyprosulfamide to the soil was driven by pH, so sorption decreased with an increase in pH. Other characteristics, such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon content, and field capacity, do not directly correlate with the distribution coefficient. Cyprosulfamide generally has a low affinity for soil and is thus mobile and prone to transport to surrounding surface waters. No lethality was observed at the highest concentration (120 mg/L) tested for acute toxicity to D. magna; hence the LC50 will be >120 mg/L. During chronic exposures, cyprosulfamide caused adverse effects at a concentration of 120 mg/L on the number of neonates and brood size. The death rate for the chronic study was a function of concentration and increased with days of exposure. Cyprosulfamide is unlikely to cause lethality to D. magna at relevant environmental concentrations.