Pamela L. Sullivan


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Hydrological Perspectives on Integrated, Coordinated, Open, Networked (ICON) Science
Bharat Sharma Acharya, Bulbul Ahmmed, Yunxiang Chen, Jason Davison, Lauren Haygood, Robert T. Hensley, Rakesh Kumar, Lerback Jory, Haojie Liu, Sushant Mehan, Mehana Mohamed, Sopan Patil, Bhaleka Persaud, Pamela L. Sullivan, Dawn URycki
Earth and Space Science, Volume 9, Issue 4

Abstract Hydrologic sciences depend on data monitoring, analyses, and simulations of hydrologic processes to ensure safe, sufficient, and equal water distribution. These hydrologic data come from but are not limited to primary (lab, plot, and field experiments) and secondary sources (remote sensing, UAVs, hydrologic models) that typically follow FAIR Principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable: ( )). Easy availability of FAIR data has become possible because the hydrology‐oriented organizations have pushed the community to increase coordination of the protocols for generating data and sharing model platforms. In addition, networking at all levels has emerged with an invigorated effort to activate community science efforts that complement conventional data collection methods. However, it has become difficult to decipher various complex hydrologic processes with increasing data. Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, provide more accurate and faster alternatives to better understand different hydrological processes. The Integrated, Coordinated, Open, Networked (ICON) framework provides a pathway for water users to include and respect diversity, equity, and inclusivity. In addition, ICONs support the integration of peoples with historically marginalized identities into this professional discipline of water sciences. This article comprises three independent commentaries about the state of ICON principles in hydrology and discusses the opportunities and challenges of adopting them.


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Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling
Ying Fan, Martyn P. Clark, David M. Lawrence, Sean Swenson, Lawrence E. Band, Susan L. Brantley, P. D. Brooks, W. E. Dietrich, Alejandro N. Flores, Gordon E. Grant, James W. Kirchner, D. S. Mackay, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, P. C. D. Milly, Pamela L. Sullivan, Christina Tague, Hoori Ajami, Nathaniel W. Chaney, Andreas Hartmann, P. Hazenberg, J. P. McNamara, Jon D. Pelletier, J. Perket, Elham Rouholahnejad Freund, Thorsten Wagener, Xubin Zeng, R. Edward Beighley, J. R. Buzan, Maoyi Huang, Ben Livneh, Binayak P. Mohanty, Bart Nijssen, Mohammad Safeeq, Chaopeng Shen, Willem van Verseveld, John Volk, Dai Yamazaki
Water Resources Research, Volume 55, Issue 2

Earth System Models (ESMs) are essential tools for understanding and predicting global change, but they cannot explicitly resolve hillslope‐scale terrain structures that fundamentally organize water, energy, and biogeochemical stores and fluxes at subgrid scales. Here we bring together hydrologists, Critical Zone scientists, and ESM developers, to explore how hillslope structures may modulate ESM grid‐level water, energy, and biogeochemical fluxes. In contrast to the one‐dimensional (1‐D), 2‐ to 3‐m deep, and free‐draining soil hydrology in most ESM land models, we hypothesize that 3‐D, lateral ridge‐to‐valley flow through shallow and deep paths and insolation contrasts between sunny and shady slopes are the top two globally quantifiable organizers of water and energy (and vegetation) within an ESM grid cell. We hypothesize that these two processes are likely to impact ESM predictions where (and when) water and/or energy are limiting. We further hypothesize that, if implemented in ESM land models, these processes will increase simulated continental water storage and residence time, buffering terrestrial ecosystems against seasonal and interannual droughts. We explore efficient ways to capture these mechanisms in ESMs and identify critical knowledge gaps preventing us from scaling up hillslope to global processes. One such gap is our extremely limited knowledge of the subsurface, where water is stored (supporting vegetation) and released to stream baseflow (supporting aquatic ecosystems). We conclude with a set of organizing hypotheses and a call for global syntheses activities and model experiments to assess the impact of hillslope hydrology on global change predictions.