Paul D. Jones


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A wastewater-based risk index for SARS-CoV-2 infections among three cities on the Canadian Prairie
Mohsen Asadi, Femi F. Oloye, Yuwei Xie, Jenna Cantin, Jonathan K. Challis, Kerry N. McPhedran, Warsame Yusuf, David Champredon, Ximing Pu, Chantel De Lange, Seba El-Baroudy, Mark R. Servos, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy, Markus Brinkmann
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 876

Wastewater surveillance (WWS) is useful to better understand the spreading of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in communities, which can help design and implement suitable mitigation measures. The main objective of this study was to develop the Wastewater Viral Load Risk Index (WWVLRI) for three Saskatchewan cities to offer a simple metric to interpret WWS. The index was developed by considering relationships between reproduction number, clinical data, daily per capita concentrations of virus particles in wastewater, and weekly viral load change rate. Trends of daily per capita concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater for Saskatoon, Prince Albert, and North Battleford were similar during the pandemic, suggesting that per capita viral load can be useful to quantitatively compare wastewater signals among cities and develop an effective and comprehensible WWVLRI. The effective reproduction number (Rt) and the daily per capita efficiency adjusted viral load thresholds of 85 × 106 and 200 × 106 N2 gene counts (gc)/population day (pd) were determined. These values with rates of change were used to categorize the potential for COVID-19 outbreaks and subsequent declines. The weekly average was considered 'low risk' when the per capita viral load was 85 × 106 N2 gc/pd. A 'medium risk' occurs when the per capita copies were between 85 × 106 and 200 × 106 N2 gc/pd. with a rate of change <100 %. The start of an outbreak is indicated by a 'medium-high' risk classification when the week-over-week rate of change was >100 %, and the absolute magnitude of concentrations of viral particles was >85 × 106 N2 gc/pd. Lastly, a 'high risk' occurs when the viral load exceeds 200 × 106 N2 gc/pd. This methodology provides a valuable resource for decision-makers and health authorities, specifically given the limitation of COVID-19 surveillance based on clinical data.

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Understanding common population markers for SARS-CoV-2 RNA normalization in wastewater – A review
Femi F. Oloye, Yuwei Xie, Jonathan K. Challis, Oluwabunmi P. Femi-Oloye, Markus Brinkmann, Kerry N. McPhedran, Paul D. Jones, Mark R. Servos, John P. Giesy
Chemosphere, Volume 333

Wastewater monitoring and epidemiology have seen renewed interest during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, there is an increasing need to normalize wastewater-derived viral loads in local populations. Chemical tracers, both exogenous and endogenous compounds, have proven to be more stable and reliable for normalization than biological indicators. However, differing instrumentation and extraction methods can make it difficult to compare results. This review examines current extraction and quantification methods for ten common population indicators: creatinine, coprostanol, nicotine, cotinine, sucralose, acesulfame, androstenedione 5-hydroindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), caffeine, and 1,7-dimethyluric acid. Some wastewater parameters such as ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and daily flowrate were also evaluated. The analytical methods included direct injection, dilute and shoot, liquid/liquid, and solid phase extraction (SPE). Creatine, acesulfame, nicotine, 5-HIAA and androstenedione have been analysed by direct injection into LC-MS; however, most authors prefer to include SPE steps to avoid matrix effects. Both LC-MS and GC-MS have been successfully used to quantify coprostanol in wastewater, and the other selected indicators have been quantified successfully with LC-MS. Acidification to stabilize the sample before freezing to maintain the integrity of samples has been reported to be beneficial. However, there are arguments both for and against working at acidic pHs. Wastewater parameters mentioned earlier are quick and easy to quantify, but the data does not always represent the human population effectively. A preference for population indicators originating solely from humans is apparent. This review summarises methods employed for chemical indicators in wastewater, provides a basis for choosing an appropriate extraction and analysis method, and highlights the utility of accurate chemical tracer data for wastewater-based epidemiology.

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Sorption behaviour and toxicity of an herbicide safener “cyprosulfamide”
Oluwabunmi P. Femi-Oloye, Femi F. Oloye, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859

Cyprosulfamide is a herbicide safener that works against the injurious effects of herbicides such as isoxaflutole, dicamba, nicosulfuron, tembotrione, thiencarbazone-methyl. However, its sorption behaviour in soils and toxicity to aquatic organisms are yet to be thoroughly examined. This study determined the octanol-water partition coefficient, sorption properties, acute and chronic toxic effects, and potency of cyprosulfamide to the cladoceran water flea (Daphnia magna). The influence of soil properties such as organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, pH, and field capacity on adsorption and desorption properties were also examined. The Log Kow (0.55) of cyprosulfamide was less than that of some other safeners, such as benoxacor or furilazole, found in aquatic environments. The sorption of cyprosulfamide to the soil was driven by pH, so sorption decreased with an increase in pH. Other characteristics, such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon content, and field capacity, do not directly correlate with the distribution coefficient. Cyprosulfamide generally has a low affinity for soil and is thus mobile and prone to transport to surrounding surface waters. No lethality was observed at the highest concentration (120 mg/L) tested for acute toxicity to D. magna; hence the LC50 will be >120 mg/L. During chronic exposures, cyprosulfamide caused adverse effects at a concentration of 120 mg/L on the number of neonates and brood size. The death rate for the chronic study was a function of concentration and increased with days of exposure. Cyprosulfamide is unlikely to cause lethality to D. magna at relevant environmental concentrations.


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Absorption and elimination of per and poly-fluoroalkyl substances substitutes in salmonid species after pre-fertilization exposure
Shu Su, Paul D. Jones, Jason C. Raine, Zilin Yang, Yufeng Gong, Yuwei Xie, Jie Tang, Chao Wang, Xiaoli Zhao, John P. Giesy
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 814

Due to their relatively large production and few restrictions on uses, novel substitutes for historically used per and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are being used and accumulating in the environment. However, due to a lack of information on their toxicological properties their hazards and risks are hard to estimate. Before fertilization, oocytes of two salmonid species, Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were exposed to three PFAS substances used as substitutes for traditional PFAS, PFBA, PFBS or GenX or two archetypical, historically used, longer-chain PFAS, PFOA and PFOS. Exposed oocytes were subsequently fertilized, incubated and were sampled during several developmental stages, until swim-up. All five PFAS were accumulated into egg yolks with similar absorption rates, and their concentrations in egg yolks were less than respective concentrations in/on egg chorions. Rapid elimination of the five PFAS was observed during the first 3 days after fertilization. Thereafter, amounts of PFOS and PFOA were stable until swim-up, while PFBA, PFBS and GenX were further eliminated during development from one month after the fertilization to swim-up. In these two salmonid species, PFBA, PFBS and GenX were eliminated faster than were PFOS or PFOA.

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Effects of aqueous fluoxetine exposure on gut microbiome of adult Pimephales promelas
Alana Weber, Yuwei Xie, Jonathan K. Challis, Abigail DeBofsky, Phillip Ankley, Markus Hecker, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 813

The microbiome of the gut is vital for homeostasis of hosts with its ability to detoxify and activate toxicants, as well as signal to the immune and nervous systems. However, in the field of environmental toxicology, the gut microbiome has only recently been identified as a measurable indicator for exposure to environmental pollutants. Antidepressants found in effluents of wastewater treatment plants and surface waters have been shown to exhibit antibacterial-like properties in vitro, where some bacteria are known to express homologous proteins that bind antidepressants in vertebrates. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that exposure to antidepressant drugs might affect gut microbiota of aquatic organisms. In this study, the common antidepressant, fluoxetine, was investigated to determine whether it can modulate the gut microbiome of adult fathead minnows. A 28-day, sub-chronic, static renewal exposure was performed with nominal fluoxetine concentrations of 0.01, 10 or 100 μg/L. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shifts among the gut-associated microbiota were observed in individuals exposed to the greatest concentration, with greater effects observed in females. These changes were associated with a decrease in relative proportions of commensal bacteria, which can be important for health of fish including bacteria essential for fatty acid oxidation, and an increase in relative proportions of pathogenic bacteria associated with inflammation. Results demonstrate, for the first time, how antidepressants found in some aquatic environments can influence gut microbiota of fishes.

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RNA in Municipal Wastewater Reveals Magnitudes of COVID-19 Outbreaks across Four Waves Driven by SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern
Yuwei Xie, Jonathan K. Challis, Femi F. Oloye, Mohsen Asadi, Jenna Cantin, Markus Brinkmann, Kerry N. McPhedran, Natacha S. Hogan, Mike Sadowski, Paul D. Jones, Chrystal Landgraff, Chand Mangat, Mark R. Servos, John P. Giesy
ACS ES&T Water, Volume 2, Issue 11

There are no standardized protocols for quantifying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater to date, especially for population normalization. Here, a pipeline was developed, applied, and assessed to quantify SARS-CoV-2 and key variants of concern (VOCs) RNA in wastewater at Saskatoon, Canada. Normalization approaches using recovery ratio and extraction efficiency, wastewater parameters, or population indicators were assessed by comparing to daily numbers of new cases. Viral load was positively correlated with daily new cases reported in the sewershed. Wastewater surveillance (WS) had a lead time of approximately 7 days, which indicated surges in the number of new cases. WS revealed the variant α and δ driving the third and fourth wave, respectively. The adjustment with the recovery ratio and extraction efficiency improved the correlation between viral load and daily new cases. Normalization of viral concentration to concentrations of the artificial sweetener acesulfame K improved the trend of viral load during the Christmas and New Year holidays when populations were dynamic and variable. Acesulfame K performed better than pepper mild mottle virus, creatinine, and ammonia for population normalization. Hence, quality controls to characterize recovery ratios and extraction efficiencies and population normalization with acesulfame are promising for precise WS programs supporting decision-making in public health.

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Monthly variations of unregulated brominated disinfection by-products in chlorinated water are correlated with total bromine
Christena Watts, Jianxian Sun, Paul D. Jones, Hui Peng, John P. Giesy
Eco-Environment & Health, Volume 1, Issue 3

Brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs) can form during chlorination of drinking water in treatment plants (DWTP). Regulations exist for a small subset of Br-DBPs; However, hundreds of unregulated Br-DBPs have been detected and limited information exists on their occurrence, concentrations, and seasonal trends. Here, a data-independent precursor isolation and characteristic fragment (DIPIC-Frag) method was optimized to screen chlorinated waters for Br-DBPs. There were 553 Br-DBPs detected with m/z values ranging from 170.884 to 497.0278 and chromatographic retention times from 2.4 to 26.2 min. With MS 2 information, structures for 40 of the 54 most abundant Br-DBPs were predicted. The method was then applied to a year-long study in which raw, clear well, and finished water were analyzed monthly. The 54 most abundant unregulated Br-DBPs were subjected to trend analysis. Br-DBPs with higher oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) and bromine-to-carbon (Br/C) ratios increased as water moved from the clear well to the finished stage, which indicated the dynamic formation of Br-DBPs. Monthly trends of unregulated Br-DBPs were compared to raw water parameters such as natural organic matter, temperature, and total bromine, but no correlations were observed. It was found that total concentrations of bromine (TBr) in finished water (0.04–0.12 mg/L) were consistently and significantly greater than in raw water (0.013–0.038 mg/L, P < 0.001), suggesting the introduction of bromine during the disinfection process. Concentrations of TBr in treatment units, rather than raw water, were significantly correlated to 34 of the Br-DBPs at α = 0.05. This study provides the first evidence that monthly trends of unregulated Br-DBPs can be associated with the concentration of TBr in treated waters. - Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify novel brominated disinfection byproducts in a Canadian water treatment facility. - Several hundred novel brominated compounds were identified of which 54 were assigned chemical structures. - Seasonal variation in the generated DBPs were assessed over 11 months of sampling. - Increases in total bromine in drinking water was noted with progress thru the treatment process.

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16S rRNA metabarcoding unearths responses of rare gut microbiome of fathead minnows exposed to benzo[a]pyrene
Abigail DeBofsky, Yuwei Xie, Jonathan K. Challis, Phillip Ankley, Markus Brinkmann, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 807

Activities of gut microbiomes are often overlooked in assessments of ecotoxicological effects of environmental contaminants. Effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on active gut microbiomes of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were investigated. Fish were exposed for two weeks, to concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg BaP g-1 in the diet. The active gut microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA metabarcoding to determine its response to dietary exposure of BaP. BaP reduced alpha-diversity at the greatest exposure concentrations. Additionally, exposure to BaP altered community composition of active microbiome and resulted in differential proportion of taxa associated with hydrocarbon degradation and fish health. Neighborhood selection networks of active microbiomes were not reduced with greater concentrations of BaP, which suggests ecological resistance and/or resilience of gut microbiota. The active gut microbiome had a similar overall biodiversity as that of the genomic gut microbiota, but had a distinct composition from that of the 16S rDNA profile. Responses of alpha- and beta-diversities of the active microbiome to BaP exposure were consistent with that of genomic microbiomes. Normalized activity of microbiome via the ratio of rRNA to rDNA abundance revealed rare taxa that became active or dormant due to exposure to BaP. These differences highlight the need to assess both 16S rDNA and rRNA metabarcoding to fully derive bacterial compositional changes resulting from exposure to contaminants.

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Rapid transition between SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern Delta and Omicron detected by monitoring municipal wastewater from three Canadian cities
Femi F. Oloye, Yuwei Xie, Mohsen Asadi, Jenna Cantin, Jonathan K. Challis, Markus Brinkmann, Kerry N. McPhedran, Kevin Kristian, Mark P. Keller, Mike Sadowski, Paul D. Jones, Chrystal Landgraff, Chand Mangat, Meghan Fuzzen, Mark R. Servos, John P. Giesy
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841

Monitoring the communal incidence of COVID-19 is important for both government and residents of an area to make informed decisions. However, continuous reliance on one means of monitoring might not be accurate because of biases introduced by government policies or behaviours of residents. Wastewater surveillance was employed to monitor concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw influent wastewater from wastewater treatment plants serving three Canadian Prairie cities with different population sizes. Data obtained from wastewater are not directly influenced by government regulations or behaviours of individuals. The means of three weekly samples collected using 24 h composite auto-samplers were determined. Viral loads were determined by RT-qPCR, and whole-genome sequencing was used to charaterize variants of concern (VOC). The dominant VOCs in the three cities were the same but with different proportions of sub-lineages. Sub-lineages of Delta were AY.12, AY.25, AY.27 and AY.93 in 2021, while the major sub-lineage of Omicron was BA.1 in January 2022, and BA.2 subsequently became a trace-level sub-variant then the predominant VOC. When each VOC was first detected varied among cities; However, Saskatoon, with the largest population, was always the first to present new VOCs. Viral loads varied among cities, but there was no direct correlation with population size, possibly because of differences in flow regimes. Population is one of the factors that affects trends in onset and development of local outbreaks during the pandemic. This might be due to demography or the fact that larger populations had greater potential for inter- and intra-country migration. Hence, wastewater surveillance data from larger cities can typically be used to indicate what to expect in smaller communities.


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Responses of juvenile fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) gut microbiome to a chronic dietary exposure of benzo[a]pyrene
Abigail DeBofsky, Yuwei Xie, Jonathan K. Challis, Niteesh Jain, Markus Brinkmann, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Environmental Pollution, Volume 278

The microbiome has been described as an additional host “organ” with well-established beneficial roles. However, the effects of exposures to chemicals on both structure and function of the gut microbiome of fishes are understudied. To determine effects of benzo[ a ]pyrene (BaP), a model persistent organic pollutant, on structural shifts of gut microbiome in juvenile fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas ), fish were exposed ad libitum in the diet to concentrations of 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg BaP g −1 food, in addition to a vehicle control, for two weeks. To determine the link between exposure to BaP and changes in the microbial community, concentrations of metabolites of BaP were measured in fish bile and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to evaluate the microbiome. Exposure to BaP only reduced alpha-diversity at the greatest exposure concentrations. However, it did alter community composition assessed as differential abundance of taxa and reduced network complexity of the microbial community in all exposure groups. Results presented here illustrate that environmentally-relevant concentrations of BaP can alter the diversity of the gut microbiome and community network connectivity. Highlights • Dominant phyla of gut microbiome are consistent with those of other freshwater fishes. • BaP metabolites and exposure doses were consistent with those found in contaminated sites. • Dietary BaP exposure has significant, dose-dependent effects on the fish gut microbiome. • Dietary BaP exposure altered association networks of gut microbiome. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of BaP can alter the diversity of the gut microbiome and community network connectivity via dietary exposure route.

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Remodeling of Arctic char ( <i>Salvelinus alpinus</i> ) lipidome under a stimulated scenario of Arctic warming
Chao Wang, Yufeng Gong, Fuchang Deng, Enmin Ding, Jie Tang, Garry Codling, Jonathan K. Challis, Derek Green, Jing Wang, Qiliang Chen, Yuwei Xie, Shu Su, Zilin Yang, Jason C. Raine, Paul D. Jones, Song Tang, John P. Giesy
Global Change Biology, Volume 27, Issue 14

Arctic warming associated with global climate change poses a significant threat to populations of wildlife in the Arctic. Since lipids play a vital role in adaptation of organisms to variations in temperature, high-resolution mass-spectrometry-based lipidomics can provide insights into adaptive responses of organisms to a warmer environment in the Arctic and help to illustrate potential novel roles of lipids in the process of thermal adaption. In this study, we studied an ecologically and economically important species-Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)-with a detailed multi-tissue analysis of the lipidome in response to chronic shifts in temperature using a validated lipidomics workflow. In addition, dynamic alterations in the hepatic lipidome during the time course of shifts in temperature were also characterized. Our results showed that early life stages of Arctic char were more susceptible to variations in temperature. One-year-old Arctic char responded to chronic increases in temperature with coordinated regulation of lipids, including headgroup-specific remodeling of acyl chains in glycerophospholipids (GP) and extensive alterations in composition of lipids in membranes, such as less lyso-GPs, and more ether-GPs and sphingomyelin. Glycerolipids (e.g., triacylglycerol, TG) also participated in adaptive responses of the lipidome of Arctic char. Eight-week-old Arctic char exhibited rapid adaptive alterations of the hepatic lipidome to stepwise decreases in temperature while showing blunted responses to gradual increases in temperature, implying an inability to adapt rapidly to warmer environments. Three common phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) (PE 36:6|PE 16:1_20:5, PE 38:7|PE 16:1_22:6, and PE 40:7|PE 18:1_22:6) were finally identified as candidate lipid biomarkers for temperature shifts via machine learning approach. Overall, this work provides additional information to a better understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms of the lipidome of Arctic organisms in the face of near-future warming.

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Prefertilization Exposure of Rainbow Trout Eggs to Per‐ and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances to Simulate Accumulation During Oogenesis
Jason C. Raine, Shu Su, Eric S. Lin, Zilin Yang, John P. Giesy, Paul D. Jones
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 40, Issue 11

Aqueous film–forming foams (AFFFs) are used in firefighting and are sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to the environment through surface runoff and groundwater contamination at defense and transportation sites. Little is known regarding the toxicity and bioaccumulation of newer AFFF formulations containing novel PFAS. To mimic maternal transfer of PFAS, prefertilization rainbow trout eggs were exposed to three PFAS using novel methodologies. Batches of unfertilized oocytes were exposed for 3 h to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 µg/ml separately to perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, or perfluorooctanesulfonic acid in either coelomic fluid or Cortland's solution. After exposure, the gametes were fertilized and rinsed with dechlorinated water. Egg yolk was aspirated from a subset of fertilized eggs for PFAS quantification. Each PFAS was detected in yolks of eggs exposed to the respective PFAS, and yolk concentrations were directly proportional to concentrations in aqueous media to which they were exposed. Exposure in coelomic fluid or Cortland's solution resulted in similar concentrations of PFAS in egg yolks. Ratios of PFAS concentrations in oocytes to concentrations in exposure media (oocyte fluid ratios) were <0.99 when exposed from 0.01 to 10 µg/ml and <0.45 when exposed from 0.1 to 10 µg/ml for both media and all three PFAS, demonstrating that the water solubility of the chemicals was relatively great. Prefertilization exposure of eggs effectively introduced PFAS into unfertilized egg yolk. This method provided a means of mimicking maternal transfer to evaluate toxicity to developing embryos from an early stage. This method is more rapid and efficient than injection of individual fertilized eggs and avoids trauma from inserting needles into eggs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:3159–3165. © 2021 SETAC

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Effects of the brominated flame retardant, TBCO, on development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos
Darren Van Essen, Chloe Devoy, Justin Miller, Paul D. Jones, Steve Wiseman
Chemosphere, Volume 266

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can enter aquatic environments where they can have adverse effects on organisms. The BFR, 1,2,5,6-Tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO), has been introduced as a potential replacement for the major use BRF, Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, little is known about effects of TBCO on aquatic organisms. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model species, objectives of this study were to determine whether TBCO has adverse effects on early life-stages and to investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of any effects on development. Exposure to TBCO caused a concentration dependant increase in mortality, decrease in heart rate, and increase in incidences of spinal curvature and uninflated swim bladders. Neither peroxidation of lipids or mRNA abundances of genes important for the response to oxidative stress were greater in embryos exposed to TBCO suggesting effects were not caused by oxidative stress. The mRNA abundance of cytochrome p4501a was not greater in embryos exposed to TBCO suggesting that effects were not caused by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Finally, mRNA abundances of genes important for development and inflation of the swim bladder were not affected by TBCO. Overall, TBCO causes adverse effects on early life-stages of zebrafish, but mechanisms of effects require further investigation.

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Ractopamine and Other Growth-Promoting Compounds in Beef Cattle Operations: Fate and Transport in Feedlot Pens and Adjacent Environments
Jonathan K. Challis, Srinivas Sura, Jenna Cantin, Ashley Curtis, K. M. Shade, Tim A. McAllister, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy, Francis J. Larney
Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 55, Issue 3

The current study represents a comprehensive investigation of the occurrence and fates of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and metabolites 17α-trenbolone (17α-TBOH), 17β-TBOH, and trendione (TBO); melengesterol acetate (MGA); and the less commonly studied β-andrenergic agonist ractopamine (RAC) in two 8 month cattle feeding trials and simulated rainfall runoff experiments. Cattle were administered TBA, MGA, or RAC, and their residues were measured in fresh feces, pen floor material, and simulated rainfall runoff from pen floor surfaces and manure-amended pasture. Concentrations of RAC ranged from 3600 ng g–1, dry weight (dw), in pen floor to 58 000 ng g–1 in fresh feces and were, on average, observed at 3–4 orders of magnitude greater than those of TBA and MGA. RAC persisted in pen floors (manure t1/2 = 18–49 days), and contamination of adjacent sites was observed, likely via transport of windblown particulates. Concentrations in runoff water from pen floors extrapolated to larger-scale commercial feedlots revealed that a single rainfall event could result in mobilization of gram quantities of RAC. This is the first report of RAC occurrence and fate in cattle feedlot environments, and will help understand the risks posed by this chemical and inform appropriate manure-management practices.


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Towards indigenous community-led monitoring of fish in the oil sands region of Canada: Lessons at the intersection of cultural consensus and fish science
Nicolás Brunet, Timothy D. Jardine, Paul D. Jones, Findlay Macdermid, Graeme Reed, Ana-Maria Bogdan, Devan Tchir, David C. Natcher
The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 7, Issue 4

Abstract In the Oil Sands Regions of Alberta, Canada, Indigenous reassertion of rights and responsibilities has lead to a renewed leadership in monitoring the effects of industries on various environment receptors. This study, conducted with Cold Lake First Nations, Alberta (CLFN), sought to explore local concerns regarding fish consumption safety and population health in response to multiple anthropogenic stressors focusing upon oil extraction. We undertook this work using a novel research design comprised of two distinct approaches including a participatory fish health and toxicology study and a cultural consensus survey of CLFN members. The cultural consensus study assessed similarities and differences in knowledge and perceptions of CLFN members. The fish toxicology and health research involved implementing a co-designed protocol to collect and sample fish for toxicants and overall population health using scientific indicators. We discuss the results of each study as well as the tangible application of our work in achieving a Multiple Evidence Base approach. Our work highlights that complementarities between our studies as part of a negotiated research process can form a single cohesive narrative to better inform fisheries management while respecting community knowledge, culture and rights to access land, water and country foods.

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Metals and PFAS in stormwater and surface runoff in a semi-arid Canadian city subject to large variations in temperature among seasons
Garry Codling, Hongda Yuan, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy, Markus Hecker
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 27, Issue 15

Because compounds accumulate through dry periods and enter aquatic systems in just a few seasonal events such as snowmelt and summer storms, surface waters in semi-arid, cold regions, such as the Canadian Prairies, are particularly vulnerable to loading of contaminant from runoff events from surfaces. This study assessed concentrations of metals and selected trace organics entering a river via surface runoff from an urban region and how these semi-arid regions with large seasonal variations in temperature might differ from more temperate regions. Selected potentially harmful elements (PHEs) including, Mn with Cr, Cu, Zn, Ba and U all exceeded guideline discharge values set by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME) by as much as 16-fold. Variation among discharges during spring, summer and winter was observed. For example, across the whole city, an estimated 6 kg of zinc was discharged in a spring storm, 36 kg in a summer storm and 17 tonnes in snowmelt. The mass of Zn discharged is similar to the annual loading estimated for Stockholm, Sweden, but in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the bulk of runoff was during snowmelt. The mean sum of poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in stormwater was 9.0 ng L−1, which is consistent with concentrations observed in other Canadian cities (6.5–16 ng L−1). These concentrations of PFAS are likely due to dispersed sources and orders of magnitude less than thresholds for toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates.

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Concentrations of Metals in Fishes from the Athabasca and Slave Rivers of Northern Canada
Brett Tendler, Ehimai Ohiozebau, Garry Codling, John P. Giesy, Paul D. Jones
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 39, Issue 11

There is growing concern about possible effects of exploitation of the Alberta Oil Sands on the ambient environment, including possible effects on populations of fishes in the Athabasca River and farther downstream in Lake Athabasca and the Slave River. In the present study, concentrations of metals in dorsal muscle tissue of 5 fish species-goldeye, northern pike, walleye, whitefish, and burbot-from the Slave, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers were quantified. A suite of 25 metals including As, Hg, Se, Tl, and V was analyzed. Most metals exhibited no significant variations in concentration among locations. Concentrations of 5 metals, As, Hg, Se, Tl, and V, revealed significant variations among locations and were of sufficient magnitude to be of interest. Concentrations of Hg did not vary significantly among locations; however, because it was detected at concentrations of concern and the use of the selected fishes was a local source of food for humans and pets, it was of interest. Concentrations of As, Se, Tl, and V in dorsal muscle of certain fishes in the farthest downstream sites on the Slave River were greater than those in the same tissues and species in the farther upstream sites on the Peace and Athabasca Rivers. This phenomenon was most prevalent with Tl and to a lesser extent with As and Se. Nevertheless, concentrations were not of concern for the health of human consumers. Although metals did not appear to be increased in fish in the Alberta Oil Sands region in the present study, further research is needed to understand the potential impacts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:2180-2195. © 2020 SETAC.

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In vitro-in vivo and cross-life stage extrapolation of uptake and biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
Chelsea Grimard, Annika Mangold-Döring, Markus Schmitz, Hattan A. Alharbi, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy, Markus Hecker, Markus Brinkmann
Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 228

• A concentration dependent increase of B[ a ]P metabolites was observed • No induction of phase I or II activity was observed with increasing B[ a ]P exposure • Biotransformation of B[ a ]P was successfully implemented into in silico models • The models accurately predicted life stage-specific abundances of B[ a ]P metabolites Understanding internal dose metrics is integral to adequately assess effects environmental contaminants might have on aquatic wildlife, including fish. In silico toxicokinetic (TK) models are a leading approach for quantifying internal exposure metrics for fishes; however, they often do not adequately consider chemicals that are actively biotransformed and have not been validated against early-life stages (ELS) that are often considered the most sensitive to the exposure to contaminants. To address these uncertainties, TK models were parameterized for the rapidly biotransformed chemical benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) in embryo-larval and adult life stages of fathead minnows. Biotransformation of B[ a ]P was determined through measurements of in vitro clearance. Using in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, in vitro clearance was integrated into a multi-compartment TK model for adult fish and a one-compartment model for ELS. Model predictions were validated using measurements of B[ a ]P metabolites from in vivo flow-through exposures to graded concentrations of water-borne B[ a ]P. Significantly greater amounts of B[ a ]P metabolites were observed with exposure to greater concentrations of parent compound in both life stages. However, when assessing biotransformation capacity, no differences in phase I or phase II biotransformation were observed with greater exposures to B[ a ]P. Results of modelling suggested that biotransformation of B[ a ]P can be successfully implemented into in silico models to accurately predict life stage-specific abundances of B[ a ]P metabolites in either whole-body larvae or the bile of adult fish. Models developed increase the scope of applications in which TK models can be used to support environmental risk assessments.

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Effects of the husky oil spill on gut microbiota of native fishes in the North Saskatchewan River, Canada
Abigail DeBofsky, Yuwei Xie, Timothy D. Jardine, Janet E. Hill, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 229

• Concentrations of PAHs in muscle suggests continued exposure to the residual spilled oil. • Identity of the host species was the dominant driver in shaping the gut microbiome of fish. • Structures of gut microbiomes were correlated with concentrations of PAHs in muscle in walleye. In July 2016, a Husky Energy pipeline spilled 225,000 L of diluted heavy crude oil, with a portion of the oil entering the North Saskatchewan River near Maidstone, SK, Canada. This event provided a unique opportunity to assess potential effects of a crude oil constituent (namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) on a possible sensitive indicator of freshwater ecosystem health, the gut microbiota of native fishes. In summer 2017, goldeye ( Hiodon alosoides ), walleye ( Sander vitreus ), northern pike ( Esox lucius ), and shorthead redhorse ( Moxostoma macrolepidotum ) were collected at six locations upstream and downstream of the spill. Muscle and bile were collected from individual fish for quantification of PAHs and intestinal contents were collected for characterization of the microbial community of the gut. Results suggested that host species is a significant determinant of gut microbiota, with significant differences among the species across sites. Concentrations of PAHs in dorsal muscle were significantly correlated with gut community compositions of walleye, but not of the other fishes. Concentrations of PAHs in muscle were also correlated with abundances of several families of bacteria among fishes. This study represents one of the first to investigate the response of the gut microbiome of wild fishes to chemical stressors.

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Mechanisms of pH-Dependent Uptake of Ionizable Organic Chemicals by Fish from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water (OSPW)
Markus Brinkmann, Hattan A. Alharbi, Ulyana Fuchylo, Steve Wiseman, Garrett Morandi, Hui Peng, John P. Giesy, Paul D. Jones, Markus Hecker
Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 54, Issue 15

Uptake and effects of ionizable organic chemicals (IOCs) that are weak acids in aqueous solution by fish can differ as a function of pH. While the pH-dependent behavior of select IOCs is well-understood, complex mixtures of IOCs, e.g., from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), have not yet been studied systematically. Here, we established an in vitro screening method using the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1, to investigate pH-dependent cytotoxicity and permeation of IOCs across cultured epithelia using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). The assay was benchmarked using model chemicals and technical mixtures, and then used to characterize fractions and reconstituted extracts of field-collected OSPW. Significant pH-dependent cytotoxicity of individual IOCs, acidic fractions, and reconstituted extracts of OSPW was observed. In vitro data were in good agreement with data from a 96 h in vivo exposure experiment with juvenile rainbow trout. Permeation of some IOCs from OSPW was mediated by active transport, as revealed by studies in which inhibitors of these active transport mechanisms were applied. We conclude that the RTgill-W1 in vitro assay is useful for the screening of pH-dependent uptake of IOCs in fish, and has applications for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and prioritization of chemicals in nontarget screenings.

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Toxicokinetics of Brominated Azo Dyes in the Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (<i>Danio rerio</i>) Is Prone to Aromatic Substituent Changes
Jiajun Han, Diwen Yang, David R. Hall, Jia‐Bao Liu, Jianzhong Sun, Wen Gu, Song Tang, Hattan A. Alharbi, Paul D. Jones, Henry M. Krause, Hui Peng
Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 54, Issue 7

Brominated azo dyes (BADs) have been identified as predominant indoor brominated pollutants in daycare dust; thus, their potential health risk to children is of concern. However, the toxicities of BADs remain elusive. In this study, the toxicokinetics of two predominant BADs, Disperse Blue 373 (DB373) and Disperse Violet 93 (DV93), and their suspect metabolite 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA) was investigated in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The bioconcentration factor of DV93 at 120 hpf is 6.2-fold lower than that of DB373. The nontarget analysis revealed distinct metabolism routes between DB373 and DV93 by reducing nitro groups to nitroso (DB373) or amine (DV93), despite their similar structures. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase were predicted as the enzymes responsible for the reduction of DB373 and DV93 by correlating time courses of the metabolites and enzyme development. Further in vitro recombinant enzyme and in vivo inhibition results validated NQO1 as the enzyme specifically reducing DB373, but not DV93. Global proteome profiling revealed that the expression levels of proteins from the "apoptosis-induced DNA fragmentation" pathway were significantly upregulated by all three BADs, supporting the bioactivation of BADs to mutagenic aromatic amines. This study discovered the bioactivation of BADs via distinct eukaryotic enzymes, implying their potential health risks.

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Biochemical and Molecular Investigation of In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity Spectrum of Crude Extracts of Willow Leaves Salix safsaf
Mourad A. M. Aboul‐Soud, Abdelkader E. Ashour, Jonathan K. Challis, Atallah F. Ahmed, Ashok Kumar, Amr Nassrallah, Tariq A Alahmari, Quaiser Saquib, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, Yazeed A. Al‐Sheikh, Hany A. El‐Shemy, Ahmed M. Aboul‐Enein, Khalid M. AlGhamdi, Paul D. Jones, John P. Giesy
Plants, Volume 9, Issue 10

Organic fractions and extracts of willow (Salix safsaf) leaves, produced by sequential solvent extraction as well as infusion and decoction, exhibited anticancer potencies in four cancerous cell lines, including breast (MCF-7), colorectal (HCT-116), cervical (HeLa) and liver (HepG2). Results of the MTT assay revealed that chloroform (CHCl3) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fractions exhibited specific anticancer activities as marginal toxicities were observed against two non-cancerous control cell lines (BJ-1 and MCF-12). Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry Q-Exactive™ HF Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap™ coupled with liquid chromatography (UHPLC) indicated that both extracts are enriched in features belonging to major phenolic and purine derivatives. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis (FACS), employing annexin V-FITC/PI double staining indicated that the observed cytotoxic potency was mediated via apoptosis. FACS analysis, monitoring the increase in fluorescence signal, associated with oxidation of DCFH to DCF, indicated that the mechanism of apoptosis is independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results of immunoblotting and RT-qPCR assays showed that treatment with organic fractions under investigation resulted in significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein and mRNA markers for Caspase-3, p53 and Bax, whereas it resulted in a significant reduction in amounts of both protein and mRNA of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. FACS analysis also indicated that pre-treatment and co-treatment of human amniotic epithelial (WISH) cells exposed to the ROS H2O2 with EtOAc fraction provide a cytoprotective and antioxidant capacity against generated oxidative stress. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of natural phenolic and flavonoid compounds with unparalleled and unique antioxidant and anticancer properties.


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Comparison of the Effects of Extraction Techniques on Mass Spectrometry Profiles of Dissolved Organic Compounds in Oil Sand Process-Affected Water
Hattan A. Alharbi, Garrett Morandi, Paul D. Jones, Steve Wiseman, John P. Giesy
Energy & Fuels, Volume 33, Issue 8

Recent advances in mass spectrometry have facilitated chemical characterization and profiling of complex environmental mixtures such as oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) and identification of previously unresolved chemicals. However, because OSPW is a complex mixture of salts, metals, suspended particulate matter, and dissolved organics, extraction techniques are required to reduce the effects of signal suppression/enhancement. In this work, Orbitrap, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was used to perform a comprehensive comparison of solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) techniques on profiling of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW. When operated in negative ion mode, extraction of naphthenic acid (NAs–O2) was dependent on acidification of OSPW samples for C18 and LLE techniques. However, when applying a hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) sorbent (ABN) SPE technique, the extractability of NAs was independent of pH. When operated in positive ion mode, for all extracti...

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Abundances and concentrations of brominated azo dyes detected in indoor dust
Birendra Dhungana, Hui Peng, Steven Kutarna, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Sujan Shrestha, Jing Liu, Paul D. Jones, Bikram Subedi, John P. Giesy, George P. Cobb
Environmental Pollution, Volume 252

Dust samples were collected from four indoor environments, including childcare facilities, houses, hair salons, and a research facility from the USA and were analyzed for brominated compounds using full scan liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 240 brominated compounds were detected in these dust samples, and elemental formulas were predicted for 120 more abundant ions. In addition to commonly detected brominated flame retardants (BFRs), nitrogen-containing brominated azo dyes (BADs) were among the most frequently detected and abundant. Specifically, greater abundances of BADs were detected in indoor dusts from daycares and salons compared to houses and the research facility. Using authentic standards, a quantitative method was established for two BADs (DB373: Disperse Blue 373 and DV93: Disperse Violet 93) and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline, a commonly used precursor in azo dye production, in indoor dust. Generally, greater concentrations of DB373 (≤3850 ng/g) and DV93 (≤1190 ng/g) were observed in indoor dust from daycares highlighting children as a susceptible population to potential health risk from exposure to BADs. These data are important because, to date, targeted analysis of brominated compounds in indoor environments has focused mainly on BFRs and appears to underestimate the total amount of brominated compounds.

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Vanadium and thallium exhibit biodilution in a northern river food web
Timothy D. Jardine, Lorne E. Doig, Paul D. Jones, Lalita Bharadwaj, Meghan K. Carr, Brett Tendler, Karl–Erich Lindenschmidt
Chemosphere, Volume 233

Trophic transfer of contaminants dictates concentrations and potential toxic effects in top predators, yet biomagnification behaviour of many trace elements is poorly understood. We examined concentrations of vanadium and thallium, two globally-distributed and anthropogenically-enriched elements, in a food web of the Slave River, Northwest Territories, Canada. We found that tissue concentrations of both elements declined with increasing trophic position as measured by δ15N. Slopes of log [element] versus δ15N regressions were both negative, with a steeper slope for V (-0.369) compared with Tl (-0.099). These slopes correspond to declines of 94% with each step in the food chain for V and 54% with each step in the food chain for Tl. This biodilution behaviour for both elements meant that concentrations in fish were well below values considered to be of concern for the health of fish-eating consumers. Further study of these elements in food webs is needed to allow a fuller understanding of biomagnification patterns across a range of species and systems.