S. J. Trim
Abstract In this study, we manufacture an exact solution for a set of 2D thermochemical mantle convection problems. The derivation begins with the specification of a stream function corresponding to a non‐stationary velocity field. The method of characteristics is then applied to determine an expression for composition consistent with the velocity field. The stream function formulation of the Stokes equation is then applied to solve for temperature. The derivation concludes with the application of the advection‐diffusion equation for temperature to solve for the internal heating rate consistent with the velocity, composition, and temperature solutions. Due to the large number of terms, the internal heating rate is computed using Maple™, and code is also made available in Fortran and Python. Using the method of characteristics allows the compositional transport equation to be solved without the addition of diffusion or source terms. As a result, compositional interfaces remain sharp throughout time and space in the exact solution. The exact solution presented allows for precision testing of thermochemical convection codes for correctness and accuracy.
The numerical implementation of land models: Problem formulation and laugh tests
Martyn P. Clark, Reza Zolfaghari, Kevin R. Green, S. J. Trim, Wouter Knoben, Andrew Bennett, Bart Nijssen, A. M. Ireson, Raymond J. Spiteri
Journal of Hydrometeorology
Abstract The intent of this paper is to encourage improved numerical implementation of land models. Our contributions in this paper are two-fold. First, we present a unified framework to formulate and implement land model equations. We separate the representation of physical processes from their numerical solution, enabling the use of established robust numerical methods to solve the model equations. Second, we introduce a set of synthetic test cases (the laugh tests) to evaluate the numerical implementation of land models. The test cases include storage and transmission of water in soils, lateral sub-surface flow, coupled hydrological and thermodynamic processes in snow, and cryosuction processes in soil. We consider synthetic test cases as “laugh tests” for land models because they provide the most rudimentary test of model capabilities. The laugh tests presented in this paper are all solved with the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives model (SUMMA) implemented using the SUite of Nonlinear and DIfferential/Algebraic equation Solvers (SUNDIALS). The numerical simulations from SUMMA/SUNDIALS are compared against (1) solutions to the synthetic test cases from other models documented in the peer-reviewed literature; (2) analytical solutions; and (3) observations made in laboratory experiments. In all cases, the numerical simulations are similar to the benchmarks, building confidence in the numerical model implementation. We posit that some land models may have difficulty in solving these benchmark problems. Dedicating more effort to solving synthetic test cases is critical in order to build confidence in the numerical implementation of land models.