Sean M. McMahon


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Joint effects of climate, tree size, and year on annual tree growth derived from tree‐ring records of ten globally distributed forests
Kristina J. Anderson‐Teixeira, Valentine Herrmann, Christine R. Rollinson, Bianca Gonzalez, Erika Gonzalez‐Akre, Neil Pederson, Mario Alexánder, Craig D. Allen, Raquel Alfaro‐Sánchez, Tala Awada, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Patrick J. Baker, Joseph D. Birch, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Paolo Cherubini, Stuart J. Davies, Cameron Dow, Ryan Helcoski, Jakub Kašpar, James A. Lutz, Ellis Q. Margolis, Justin T. Maxwell, Sean M. McMahon, Camille Piponiot, Sabrina E. Russo, Pavel Šamonil, Anastasia E. Sniderhan, Alan J. Tepley, Mart Vlam, Pieter A. Zuidema
Global Change Biology, Volume 28, Issue 1

Tree rings provide an invaluable long-term record for understanding how climate and other drivers shape tree growth and forest productivity. However, conventional tree-ring analysis methods were not designed to simultaneously test effects of climate, tree size, and other drivers on individual growth. This has limited the potential to test ecologically relevant hypotheses on tree growth sensitivity to environmental drivers and their interactions with tree size. Here, we develop and apply a new method to simultaneously model nonlinear effects of primary climate drivers, reconstructed tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and calendar year in generalized least squares models that account for the temporal autocorrelation inherent to each individual tree's growth. We analyze data from 3811 trees representing 40 species at 10 globally distributed sites, showing that precipitation, temperature, DBH, and calendar year have additively, and often interactively, influenced annual growth over the past 120 years. Growth responses were predominantly positive to precipitation (usually over ≥3-month seasonal windows) and negative to temperature (usually maximum temperature, over ≤3-month seasonal windows), with concave-down responses in 63% of relationships. Climate sensitivity commonly varied with DBH (45% of cases tested), with larger trees usually more sensitive. Trends in ring width at small DBH were linked to the light environment under which trees established, but basal area or biomass increments consistently reached maxima at intermediate DBH. Accounting for climate and DBH, growth rate declined over time for 92% of species in secondary or disturbed stands, whereas growth trends were mixed in older forests. These trends were largely attributable to stand dynamics as cohorts and stands age, which remain challenging to disentangle from global change drivers. By providing a parsimonious approach for characterizing multiple interacting drivers of tree growth, our method reveals a more complete picture of the factors influencing growth than has previously been possible.

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Global transpiration data from sap flow measurements: the SAPFLUXNET database
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar, Scott T. Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson‐Teixeira, L. M. T. Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert C. Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, B. Blakely, Johnny L. Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, César Cisneros Vaca, Kenneth L. Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frédéric Chauvaud, Michal Dohnal, Jean‐Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, C. Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El‐Madany, J.A. Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie Euskirchen, B. E. Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar García-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, J. P. Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Guangyu Yang, Mark B Gush, P. J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernández‐Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, F. Holwerda, Hongzhong Dang, J. E. Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, P. G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun‐Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean‐Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, A. Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, M. M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis‐Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley M. Matheny, Nate G. McDowell, Sean M. McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick J. Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, R. J. Norby, Kimberly A. Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, Christopher A. Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean‐Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Óscar Pérez-Priego, Pablo Luís Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine G. Rascher, George R. Robinson, Humberto Ribeiro da Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, A. V. Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor‐ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey M. Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan D. Wullschleger, K. Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, Jordi Martínez‐Vilalta
Earth System Science Data, Volume 13, Issue 6

Abstract. Plant transpiration links physiological responses of vegetation to water supply and demand with hydrological, energy, and carbon budgets at the land–atmosphere interface. However, despite being the main land evaporative flux at the global scale, transpiration and its response to environmental drivers are currently not well constrained by observations. Here we introduce the first global compilation of whole-plant transpiration data from sap flow measurements (SAPFLUXNET,, last access: 8 June 2021). We harmonized and quality-controlled individual datasets supplied by contributors worldwide in a semi-automatic data workflow implemented in the R programming language. Datasets include sub-daily time series of sap flow and hydrometeorological drivers for one or more growing seasons, as well as metadata on the stand characteristics, plant attributes, and technical details of the measurements. SAPFLUXNET contains 202 globally distributed datasets with sap flow time series for 2714 plants, mostly trees, of 174 species. SAPFLUXNET has a broad bioclimatic coverage, with woodland/shrubland and temperate forest biomes especially well represented (80 % of the datasets). The measurements cover a wide variety of stand structural characteristics and plant sizes. The datasets encompass the period between 1995 and 2018, with 50 % of the datasets being at least 3 years long. Accompanying radiation and vapour pressure deficit data are available for most of the datasets, while on-site soil water content is available for 56 % of the datasets. Many datasets contain data for species that make up 90 % or more of the total stand basal area, allowing the estimation of stand transpiration in diverse ecological settings. SAPFLUXNET adds to existing plant trait datasets, ecosystem flux networks, and remote sensing products to help increase our understanding of plant water use, plant responses to drought, and ecohydrological processes. SAPFLUXNET version 0.1.5 is freely available from the Zenodo repository (; Poyatos et al., 2020a). The “sapfluxnetr” R package – designed to access, visualize, and process SAPFLUXNET data – is available from CRAN.

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<i>allodb</i> : An R package for biomass estimation at globally distributed extratropical forest plots
Erika Gonzalez‐Akre, Camille Piponiot, Mauro Lepore, Valentine Herrmann, James A. Lutz, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Christopher W. Dick, Gregory S. Gilbert, Fangliang He, Michael Heym, Alejandra I. Huerta, Patrick A. Jansen, Daniel J. Johnson, Nikolai Knapp, Kamil Král, Dunmei Lin, Yadvinder Malhi, Sean M. McMahon, Jonathan A. Myers, David A. Orwig, Diego I. Rodríguez-Hernández, Sabrina E. Russo, Jessica Shue, Xugao Wang, Amy Wolf, Tao Yang, Stuart J. Davies, Kristina J. Anderson‐Teixeira
Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 13, Issue 2

Allometric equations for calculation of tree above-ground biomass (AGB) form the basis for estimates of forest carbon storage and exchange with the atmosphere. While standard models exist to calculate forest biomass across the tropics, we lack a standardized tool for computing AGB across boreal and temperate regions that comprise the global extratropics. Here we present an integrated R package, allodb, containing systematically selected published allometric equations and proposed functions to compute AGB. The data component of the package is based on 701 woody species identified at 24 large Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO) forest dynamics plots representing a wide diversity of extratropical forests. A total of 570 parsed allometric equations to estimate individual tree biomass were retrieved, checked and combined using a weighting function designed to ensure optimal equation selection over the full tree size range with smooth transitions across equations. The equation dataset can be customized with built-in functions that subset the original dataset and add new equations. Although equations were curated based on a limited set of forest communities and number of species, this resource is appropriate for large portions of the global extratropics and can easily be expanded to cover novel forest types.


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Cryptic phenology in plants: Case studies, implications, and recommendations
Loren P. Albert, N. Restrepo-Coupé, Margaret Smith, Jin Wu, Cecilia Chavana‐Bryant, N. Prohaska, Tyeen Taylor, Giordane Martins, Philippe Ciais, Jiafu Mao, M. Altaf Arain, Wei Li, Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Travis E. Huxman, Sean M. McMahon, S. R. Saleska
Global Change Biology, Volume 25, Issue 11

Plant phenology—the timing of cyclic or recurrent biological events in plants—offers insight into the ecology, evolution, and seasonality of plant-mediated ecosystem processes. Traditionally studied phenologies are readily apparent, such as flowering events, germination timing, and season-initiating budbreak. However, a broad range of phenologies that are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of plants, and to global biogeochemical cycles and climate change predictions, have been neglected because they are “cryptic”—that is, hidden from view (e.g., root production) or difficult to distinguish and interpret based on common measurements at typical scales of examination (e.g., leaf turnover in evergreen forests). We illustrate how capturing cryptic phenology can advance scientific understanding with two case studies: wood phenology in a deciduous forest of the northeastern USA and leaf phenology in tropical evergreen forests of Amazonia. Drawing on these case studies and other literature, we argue that conceptualizing and characterizing cryptic plant phenology is needed for understanding and accurate prediction at many scales from organisms to ecosystems. We recommend avenues of empirical and modeling research to accelerate discovery of cryptic phenological patterns, to understand their causes and consequences, and to represent these processes in terrestrial biosphere models.