2019 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE)

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CLCDSA: Cross Language Code Clone Detection using Syntactical Features and API Documentation
Kawser Wazed Nafi | Tonny Shekha Kar | Banani Roy | Chanchal K. Roy | Kevin A. Schneider

Software clones are detrimental to software maintenance and evolution and as a result many clone detectors have been proposed. These tools target clone detection in software applications written in a single programming language. However, a software application may be written in different languages for different platforms to improve the application's platform compatibility and adoption by users of different platforms. Cross language clones (CLCs) introduce additional challenges when maintaining multi-platform applications and would likely go undetected using existing tools. In this paper, we propose CLCDSA, a cross language clone detector which can detect CLCs without extensive processing of the source code and without the need to generate an intermediate representation. The proposed CLCDSA model analyzes different syntactic features of source code across different programming languages to detect CLCs. To support large scale clone detection, the CLCDSA model uses an action filter based on cross language API call similarity to discard non-potential clones. The design methodology of CLCDSA is two-fold: (a) it detects CLCs on the fly by comparing the similarity of features, and (b) it uses a deep neural network based feature vector learning model to learn the features and detect CLCs. Early evaluation of the model observed an average precision, recall and F-measure score of 0.55, 0.86, and 0.64 respectively for the first phase and 0.61, 0.93, and 0.71 respectively for the second phase which indicates that CLCDSA outperforms all available models in detecting cross language clones.

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Learning from Examples to Find Fully Qualified Names of API Elements in Code Snippets
C M Khaled Saifullah | Muhammad Asaduzzaman | Chanchal K. Roy

Developers often reuse code snippets from online forums, such as Stack Overflow, to learn API usages of software frameworks or libraries. These code snippets often contain ambiguous undeclared external references. Such external references make it difficult to learn and use those APIs correctly. In particular, reusing code snippets containing such ambiguous undeclared external references requires significant manual efforts and expertise to resolve them. Manually resolving fully qualified names (FQN) of API elements is a non-trivial task. In this paper, we propose a novel context-sensitive technique, called COSTER, to resolve FQNs of API elements in such code snippets. The proposed technique collects locally specific source code elements as well as globally related tokens as the context of FQNs, calculates likelihood scores, and builds an occurrence likelihood dictionary (OLD). Given an API element as a query, COSTER captures the context of the query API element, matches that with the FQNs of API elements stored in the OLD, and rank those matched FQNs leveraging three different scores: likelihood, context similarity, and name similarity scores. Evaluation with more than 600K code examples collected from GitHub and two different Stack Overflow datasets shows that our proposed technique improves precision by 4-6% and recall by 3-22% compared to state-of-the-art techniques. The proposed technique significantly reduces the training time compared to the StatType, a state-of-the-art technique, without sacrificing accuracy. Extensive analyses on results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed technique.