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Impacts of Wastewater Effluent Pharmaceuticals in Darter (Etheostoma Sp.) Brains in the Grand River on Scavenging Antioxidative Enzymes
Nicole L. Gauvreau | Leslie M. Bragg | Hadi A. Dhiyebi | Mark R. Servos | Paul M. Craig

The Grand River (GR) extends throughout the majority of Southern Ontario with its final outlet at Lake Erie and accommodates thirty wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with varied filtration processes. Many WWTPs are unable to effectively eliminate several contaminants of concern (CECs) from final released effluent, leading to measurable concentrations in surface waters and ultimately chronically exposing aquatic species to mixed CECs. Exposures to CECs have reported impacts on oxidative stress, measurable through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defense response. This research focuses on the effects of WWTP effluent on four Etheostoma (Darter) species endemic to the GR. Objectives of this study examined if any oxidative stress markers are present in darter brains downstream from the effluent release point compared to an upstream reference site relative to the Waterloo, ON WWTP across two separate years (Fall 2020 and 2021). This was assessed using transcriptional and enzyme analysis of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, CAT) and an enzyme involved in serotonin synthesis. In fall 2020, significant differences in transcript expression of markers were found between sites and sexes in greenside darters (GSD) with SOD and CAT showing increased expression downstream. Changes in transcript expression aligned with antioxidative enzyme activity where interactive effects with sex-related differences were observed in fish collected the Fall of 2020. In contrast, transcription markers measured in Fall 2021 were increased upstream compared to downstream species. Continued investigation on the impacts of pharmaceutical exposures in non-target organisms is crucial to further the knowledge of WWTP effluent impacts.

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Human Influence on the 2021 British Columbia Floods
Nathan P. Gillett | Alex J. Cannon | Elizaveta Malinina | Markus Schnorbus | F. S. Anslow | Qing Sun | Megan C. Kirchmeier‐Young | Francis W. Zwiers | Christian Seiler | Xuebin Zhang | Greg Flato | Hui Wan | Guilong Li | Armel Castellan

A strong atmospheric river made landfall in southwestern British Columbia, Canada on 14th November 2021, bringing two days of intense precipitation to the region. The resulting floods and landslides led to the loss of at least five lives, cut Vancouver off entirely from the rest of Canada by road and rail, and made this the costliest natural disaster in the province's history. Here we show that westerly atmospheric river events of this magnitude are approximately one in ten year events in the current climate of this region, and that such events have been made at least 60% more likely by the effects of human-induced climate change. Characterized in terms of the associated two-day precipitation, the event is approximately a one in 50-100 year event, and its probability has been increased by a best estimate of 50% by human-induced climate change. The effects of this precipitation on streamflow were exacerbated by already wet conditions preceding the event, and by rising temperatures during the event that led to significant snowmelt, which led to streamflow maxima exceeding estimated one in a hundred year events in several basins in the region. Based on a large ensemble of simulations with a hydrological model which integrates the effects of multiple climatic drivers, we find that the probability of such extreme streamflow events has been increased by human-induced climate change by a best estimate of 2 to 4. Together these results demonstrate the substantial human influence on this compound extreme event, and help motivate efforts to increase resiliency in the face of more frequent events of this kind in the future.

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A Survey of Software Architectural Change Detection and Categorization Techniques
Amit Kumar Mondal | Kevin A. Schneider | Banani Roy | Chanchal K. Roy

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Basinmaker 3.0: A GIS Toolbox for Distributed Watershed Delineation of Complex Lake-River Routing Networks
Mei Han | Helen C. Shen | Bryan A. Tolson | James R. Craig | Juliane Mai | Simon G.M. Lin | N. B. Basu | Frezer Seid Awol